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1.)What is Geography?
--Geography, from the Greek words Geo/Gaea, both meaning "Earth" and graphein (WTF?!?!), meaning 'to map', is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants and phenomenons

2.) History of Geography
--The Greeks, who were the first to explore geography as both art and science achieved this through Cartography, Philosophy, Literature and Mathematics. Anaxagoras was able to demonstrate that the profile of Earth was circular by explaining eclipses. One out of the first estimates of the radius of the earth was made by Erasthemes

--Hipparchus is accredited to the latitude and longitude lines, parallel and meridians were subdivided into 360 degrees celsius w/ each degree subdivided 60 (?) Longitude- he suggested using eclipses to determine the diff. in time.

--Ptolemy constructed atlases, he used a grid system on his maps and adapting a length of 56.5 miles for a degree

--Scholars from the Islamic World like Idrisi, Ibn Batutla and Ibn Khaldon produced detailed maps

--From the 3rd century and onwards, Chinese methods of geographical studies and writing or geographical literature became much more complex than what was found in Europe.

--During the 16th and 17th Century, many new lands were discovered. Explorers such as Christopher Columbus, Marco Polo and James Cook received a desire for both accurate geographic detail and more solid theoretical foundations

--In the 18th and 19th century, Geography became a typical university curriculum in Europe. Geographic Societies were developed as well.

--Over the past 2 centuries, the advancements in technology and computers have led to the development of geonatics (is dat a wurd?) and new practices like geo statistics being incorporated into Geography's Portfolio of tools.

--a geographic dictionary or index used by geographers

Culture of peace
Culture of Peace is a set of values, attitudes, modes of behavior, ways of life that reject violence and prevent conflicts by tackling their root causes to solve through dialogue and negotiation among individuals, groups and negotiations.

Key themes of peace
--Respect for Life
--Oneness of the human family
--Human worth and dignity
--Economic Equity

Core values of peace

--self worth, self esteem, identity (knowing one's identity, concern for others, courage, endurance)

--moral strength, sensitivity to other's needs, nurturing, kindness

--Mutual respect and trust, co-operation, collaboration, effective communication, common good

--Mutual Respect, Genuine Acceptance, Accommodation, Respect for Personal and Cultural differences, Peaceful Conflict Resolution

Caring and Sharing
--Love, Concern, Generosity

--Inner peace (personal peace), reverence, respect for human life

--Active participation, sense of interconnectedness with others, creative and collectedness, responsibility and cooperation

Credits: Maxinne Sebial (Yes, i know the password)
and ntbk of Cathy Dario!!! (so if there are mistakes, blame her )
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-- anumang bagay na naisasalititik (letra)
-- naeepektuhan ang ating damdamin, kaisipan, karanasan
-- kabuluhan (relevance)
~pagpapahayag ng paniniginip,karanasan,damdamin sa malikhaing pamaraan.

-- community
-- ang panitikan ay salamin o repleksyon ng lipunan

>Dalawang Uri ng Panitikan
-- epiko
-- tula
-- balagtasan

-- alamat
-- pabula
-- maikling kwento

>Mga Kahulugan ng mga Iba't Ibang Klaseng Panitikan
-- Patalata - tulang pasalaysay.
-- Epiko - mga storya tungkol sa mga bayani
-- Alamat - sinasabi ng pagmumulang ng bagay,hayop o lugar
-- Pabula - ang mga tauhan ay mga hayop o mga bagay na wala talagang buhay
-- Maikling Kwento - short story
-- Balagtasan - debate
-- Sanaysay - opinyon o essay
-- Nobela - novel
-- Pabula - kwento tungkol sa mga panggagalingan ng bagay o lugar
-- Parabula - halaw sa Banal na Kasulatan

Panitikan sa Katutubong Panahon
-tema ay kalikasan(the theme is usually about our surrondings)
-ito ay oral(usually passed on by telling stories not writing them.)
-ang mga tula ay nakabatay sa tradisyon ng tugma at sukat
-ang kanilang panitikan ay walang mga authors o pangalan.

Dahilan Kung bakit tradisyong oral
-dahil wala sila masusulatan
-bahagi ng buhay nila magpakitakita sa isat-isa at magkwentuhan
-mahirap ang pamaraan ng pagsusulat

Mga akda noong katutubo:

Saliwikain:nagbibigay aral
Bulong:Dhort poems to the fairies example:tabi tabi po
Awiting bayan:for the country
Alamat:Orgin of things
Mito;stories about the GODs

Tagalog-year 1935
-isa sa mga pagunahing wika sa Pilipinas ginagamit ito sa Region 4 and Ncr

Pilipino 1973
-ginagamit itoi ngayon.ginawa ito dahil nagkaroon ng problema ang 1935 constitutuion.ang manila ay sentro.mas kaunti ang tagalos speakers.

Filipino 1987
-ginawa pagunahing wika ito.Naging sentro ng kalakalan ang Maynila ito ay ang bago at mas alam natin.may hinihiram na salita

Kakaibahan ng Pilipino at TAgalog
Pilipino0- may halong mga salita galing sa ibang lugar

wikain-nanatili ang language pero may isa pang language na ginagamit.




ang pareho sa mga katutbo lagi ay :

Trend ng epiko

-may laban

-super natural strength

Muling mabubuhay
-always,only when hero dies


ang ibig sabihin ng pangugusap ay ito ay nagsasaad ng isang kompletong ideya

-gumagawa ng pangugusap
-pinapalawak ang ideya'
-laging bahagi ng pangugusap

Klase ng Sugnay

and kakaibahan ay Pangugusap ay may kompletong ideya ,habang ang sugnay ay bahagi ng mas malawak na pangugugusap.


other notes;
words with same meaning












credits:bea del

Current Mood: accomplished

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{note:: dana edited not me !okay she said it was perfect DAW peace dana and others-maica}

>Science and Technology
-- from the Latin Word “scientia” meaning knowledge
-- refers to the system according knowledge
-- therefore science is anybody knowledge and a process as well
>Goal of Science
-- to produce models of reality
-- knowledge
-- technology
-- it is not the goal of science to answer all the questions
-- the goal of science is to pertain to perceive reality
-- science does not and can not produce absolute and unquestionable truth
>Usefulness of Science
-- remove supersitions
-- cure diseases/delay death
-- makes tasks easier and faster
-- purifies food and water
>Remember That Science is:
-- dipolar and has limitations
-- relevant to our daily lives
>Remember That Scientists Have Responsibilities:
-- understand
-- explain
-- apply the result of understanding

“Science eliminates the worthless and the useless and make use it in something else.”
~ Thomas Edison

>Natural Science
-- Natural World and beyond Social Science “interaction of humans”
A. Physical Science
--Study of non-living matter
-- properties & behavior of matter and energy
-- composition & changes of matter
-- atmospheric conditions
-- heavenly bodies
-- rocks & minerals
-- prehestoric life forms

B. Biological Science
-- The life of Science
1. Botany
-- plants
2. Zoology
-- animals
3. Genetics
-- heredity
4. Medicine
-- diagnosing, treating & preventing illnesses etc.
5. Anatomy
-- parts of organisims
6. Taxonomy
-- classification & naming of organisims
7. Microbiology
-- micro organisims
8. Ecology
-- environment & the relationships of organisms in ti
9. Phsycology
-- functions of parts of organisims

>Scientific Attitudes
1. Curious
-- asks and answers questions to understand at deeper levels
2. Knowledge
-- understand scientific inquiry
-- knows many science concepts
3. Reflective
-- willingly considers new ideas against previousnes
4. Open-minded
-- tollerates ideas & opinions of others
-- willing to change ideas in light of new evidence
5. Skeptical
-- doubts & reconsiders questions
6. Objective
-- makes decisions based on facts
7. Cooperative
-- works with others for common goals & shares ideas
8. Persistant
-- continues despite obstacles/set backs
9. Enjoyment
-- express pleasure in understanding & persuing understanding
10. Creative
-- imagines ideas that are original or not ordinarilly thought
11. Acceptance
-- considers failure as an occasional part of the scientific endeavor

1. Controlled Variable
-- same for all set-ups
2. Manipulated/Independent Variable
-- different for all set-ups
3. Responding/Dependent Variable
-- observed effect caused by the manipulated variable

A. Old system of measurements
1. Weights/Mass
-- egyptians weighing machine:
~ balance (idea came from the way they carry grain from the field to a storage
-- their standard unit :: bequa
~ 1 bequa = 256 grains of wheat
2. Length
-- stadard unit :: cubit
~ from elbow till the tip of the middle finger
~ width: 1 digit; 1 palm = 4 digits
-- sun = one day (24 hours)
-- moon = one full moon to next ( 30 days)
~ “month”
-- Why 24 hours?
~ day 10 hrs
~ 1 hour dawn (sunrise)
~ 1 hour dusk(sunst)
= night 12 hrs
4. Temperature
-- aborgones of Australia
~ “one dog night”
~ “three dogs night”
~ measured by how many dogs are needed to be warm for that night

>Common Systems of Measurements
-- English system
~ used in the US and Britain
-- Metric system
~ known as the international system of measurement or the “SI system”
~ prefix + base (ex. centi <==prefix || meter <== base)
>Standard Unit
Quantity Name Symbol
length meter m
time seconds s
temperature kelvin K
volume liter L
electric unit ampere A
luminus intensity candela CD
mass kilogram Kg
-- property that pertains to any measurable thing
>Types of Quantity
1. Fundamental Quality
-- ”basic quantity”
~ weight / mass
= weight – mass affected by gravity
= mass – amount of matter in something
b. Length
-- can also include:
~ perimeter
~ circumference
~ diameter
C. Volume
-- amount of space an object takes up
~ volume of liquid :: liter
~ volume of solid:: cm3
-- Water Displacement
~ Procedure:
= fill the water until the amount you want (i.e. 50 ml)
= drop the irregular object(rock)
= water will increase then subtract the amount of water and the water now
D. Time
E. Temperature

2. Desired Quantity
A. Density
-- a measure of how much mass is packed into a certain volume.
-- symbol (rho)
-- Formula:
~ Density = Mass/Volume = G/L
B. Mass = m2
C. Speed = m/s
D. Acceleration = m/s 2
E. Velocity = m/s with direction
>Conversion of Units
(Dimesional Analysis)
-- Calculation/Procedure:
~ How many seconds in 50 mins.?
1. Given :: 50 mins.
2. Asked: ______sec
3. 1 min. = 60sec
*conversion factor = 60 sec./ 1
4. 50 min x 60sec. = 3000 sec.
>Goals of Metric System
-- neutral & universal
-- any laboratory experiment should be able to replace them
-- decimal multiples
-- common prefixes
-- practical
>Temperature Conversion
-- Celcius to Kelvin and Vice Versa
~ C + 273.15 <== Celcius to Kelvin
~ K - 273. 15 <== Kelvin to Celsius

*C - F isn't included in the Q.E.

Credits to Maica for typing this whole thing and to Dana for editing

Current Mood: artistic

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